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How does instruction differ?

Behaviorism

1. Type of instruction

The instruction focuses on conditioning the learner's behavior.

2. Instruction and manipulation

The instructor manipulaties the behavioral changes by using selective reinforcement.

3. Reality to promote

The learners realities are convergent. That is, their realities all come together to agree on one reality.

The instruction is based on that one reality.

Cognitivism

1. Type of instruction

The instruction focuses on the transmission of the learner's thought process.

2. Instruction and manipulation

The instructor manipulates the learner's thought process by providing a mental model that the learner must follow.

3. Reality to promote

The learners realities are convergent.

Constructivism

1. Type of instruction

Instruction promotes the mental construction of the learner's reality.

2. Instruction and manipulation

The instructor facilitates the learner's conceptual modeling. The instructor must understand the learner's existing cognitive structures and provide appropriate learning activities that will help the learner construct his knowledge.

Use multiple real world contexts, strategies, and coaching. Create a bunch of environments for the learner, so he gets to practice thinking in different ways. The result will be a learner who is better prepared to handle different situations.

3. Reality to promote

The learners realities are divergent. The learners are encouraged to develop different realities.


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