| Instructional Objective
| Learners & Context | Object
of Game | Game Materials
| Time Required
| Rules | Design
Process | References
The primary instructional goal for playing the Found
Walking:Liverpool game is to apply processes for experiencing a new city without getting lost or running out of
money. A secondary goal is to learn facts about the city.
The instructional objectives for players of this
- To identify the direction of a landmark from the
player's current position on the board
- To identify the location of landmarks within the
- To learn new facts about the city
Learners & Context of Use
This game is designed to be played by those want
to learn about the city of Liverpool. The game can be played by children ages 10 and over as well as by adults.
It will familiarize the players with the layout of the city and various landmarks, and teach strategies for moving
around the city while managing both time and financial resources. Playing of this game is especially recommended
for those who plan to travel to the city for business or for pleasure.
The Found Walking: Liverpool game is designed to
accommodate players with varying cognitive levels of strategic planning ability and different levels of knowledge
about the city of Liverpool. Each time the game is played the participants will acquire additional knowledge of
the city, which can then be used during future games.
Multiple copies of the game would be required to
accommodate play within a classroom. The game can be played by up to 6 participants at one time. The first time
the game is played by participants younger than 15, an adult should be present to explain the rules of the game.
The goal of the Found Walking: Liverpool game is
to be the first player to
1. Visit at least 2 landmarks from each quadrant of the city (a total of 8 landmarks),
2. Purchase at least 6 souvenirs,
3. Visit the designated hotel at least once, and
4. Still have money left.
(6) Hotel vouchers
(162) Landmark vouchers
(36) Souvenir vouchers
(20) Chance cards
(20) Opportunity cards
£3000 Playing money
||Road map of Liverpool, including major streets and
||Tokens used to mark each player's location on the board.
||Passports are folders used by each player to hold his
itinerary and various cards collected during the game.
||Consist of arrival location and hotel name. One itinerary
is chosen by each player at the beginning of the game.
||A roadblock card allows the player to place a roadblock
at any location of his choice; it is a strategic play to block the progress of his opponents. No player, including
the one who placed the roadblock, may cross a roadblock from either direction, which forces the choice of an alternate
One roadblock card is issued to each player at the beginning of the game. Additional roadblock cards are in the
deck of Chance cards. Roadblock cards do not need to be used right away; a player may keep the card until he wishes
to use it, at which time he will give the card to the Banker. The actual roadblocks are kept by the Banker until
he receives a Roadblock card from a player.
Depending upon the age and cognitive ability of the players, the game may be played without roadblocks. In this
case, remove the roadblock cards from the Chance deck before play begins.
||These are held by the Banker during the game; the Banker
gives each player a Hotel card after he visits his designated hotel. The card is then placed into the player's
Passport. Each player is required to visit his hotel at least once during the game.
|(162) Landmark vouchers
||Landmark cards are held by the Banker, and are given
to each player after he visits a landmark. The card is then placed into the player's Passport.
|(36) Souvenir cards
||When a player visits a landmark he has the option of
purchasing a souvenir. Souvenir cards are placed face-down, and are drawn by the player when he arrives at a landmark.
The player must pay to the Banker the amount specified on the card. The souvenir card is then placed into the player's
||Each player receives 100 pounds at the beginning of
the game; the Banker is charged with distributing and collecting money during play of the game.
||Chance cards are placed face-down on the board. The
top card must be drawn by any player who lands on a square designated "Chance" and the player must follow
the instructions on the card. Chance cards consist of positive and negative events that can happen during travel.
After the player's turn is completed, the card is placed into a Discard pile.
||Opportunity cards are placed face-down on the board.
The top card must be drawn by any player who lands on a space designated "Opportunity." Opportunity cards
consist of three questions and one action. BEFORE the Opportunity card is drawn, the player must choose to:
1) answer a question about the most direct route to a landmark,
2) answer a question about the direction in which to travel to reach a landmark,
3) answer a question about the city, or
4) choose to perform the action listed on the card
The player to the right will draw the card, and determine if the question is answered correctly (if the player
has chosen to answer one of the questions). If the question is answered correctly, the player earns the amount
designated on the card. If the action is chosen, the player must follow all instructions on the card. The card
is placed into the discard pile when that player's turn is completed.
||The dice is rolled at the beginning of each player's
turn. The number showing on the dice determines how many spaces the player may travel. If the player chooses to
walk, he travels the number of spaces shown on the dice. If the player chooses to take the bus, he travels twice
the number of spaces shown on the die, and pays to the Banker an amount equal to the twice the number of spaces
traveled. If he chooses to take a taxi, he travels three times the number of spaces shown on the dice, and pays
to the Banker an amount equal to four times the number of spaces traveled.
The passport is pre-printed with this information.
The Found Walking: Liverpool game takes about five
minutes to set up; most of the setup is done by the Banker, who must assemble and organize the money, hotel vouchers,
landmark vouchers, and roadblocks. A typical game is played until one player has 8 landmark vouchers, 6 souvenir
vouchers, 1 hotel voucher, and still has money in his possession; the game would take about 30-45 minutes to play.
The game may be finished in a longer or shorter
amount of time if the rules are modified. See The Rules: Variations in Play below.
- Before the Game Begins
One player must be chosen as the Banker before play
begins. The banker is responsible for:
>Keeping the money, hotel vouchers, landmark
vouchers, and roadblocks until needed by a player;
>Accepting payments from the players (for hotel
rooms, souvenirs, and bus and taxi fares); and
>Paying money to the players (when an Opportunity
card question is answered correctly or otherwise called for during the game).
The Banker distributes 100 pounds in spending money
and one Roadblock card to each player.
The decks of Chance cards, Opportunity cards, and
Souvenir cards should be shuffled, then each deck placed face down next to the board. Take the first card from
the Chance deck and place it face-up next to the deck; this is now the discard pile. Do the same with the Opportunity
Place the six itinerary cards face-down near the
Each player must choose a Traveler to mark his location
on the board.
- Who Takes the First Turn
Each player roles the dice. The player with the
highest number will take the first turn. If more than one player roles the highest number, each will role the dice
- Who Takes the Next Turn
Play will continue in a clockwise direction.
- Beginning the Game
The first player will choose an itinerary, followed
in order by each player to his left. He will place his Traveler on the space that corresponds to his Arrival location
on the itinerary. He places the itinerary into his Passport, and notes the location of the hotel listed on the
itinerary. He must visit this hotel at least once in order to win the game.
- Methods for moving around the board
The first player roles the dice. He has a choice
of how many spaces to move during each turn. He may "walk" and move up to the same number of spaces that
show on the dice. He may take the bus and move twice the number of spaces on the dice. However, he must also pay
2 pounds for every space moved. He can also take a taxi and move three times the number of spaces on the dice.
If he takes a taxi he must pay four pounds for every space moved. This information is also listed on each player's
Passport for easy reference.
The City Center is indicated by the gold area in
the middle of the board. No taxi or bus service is available there; players may only walk upon reaching the first
space within the City Center.
- How many spaces to move
Each player can always move less than the number
of spaces indicated by the role of the dice. Note that the payment due for taking the bus or taxi is equal to the
number of spaces moved, times two (for the bus) or times four (for a taxi).
- Chance Cards
If a player lands on a space designated Chance (a
green space) he must draw a card from the Chance deck and follow the instructions. The card is then placed into
the Chance discard pile.
- Opportunity Cards
If a player lands on a space designated Opportunity
(a pink space), he must first decide which item to choose:
a) a question that asks the player to determine
the most direct route to a landmark, worth 5 pounds, or
b) a directional question, worth 10 pounds, or
c) a question about the city or its history, worth
25 pounds, or
d) an action.
The player to his right will draw the card and read
the chosen question or action. If the player answers the question correctly, the Banker will pay him the designated
amount. The card is then placed into the Opportunity discard pile.
To win the game, a player must visit at least 2
landmarks in each quadrant. Landmarks are shown on the board as yellow spaces; landmarks in each of the four quadrants
will be indicated with a different color within the yellow space. Each time the player visits a different landmark,
the Banker will give him a landmark voucher containing the name of that landmark. The player will place the Landmark
voucher into his Passport.
When the player visits a landmark, he has the option
of buying a souvenir. To win the game, a player must also buy at least 6 souvenirs. Souvenirs can only be purchased
during the same turn that a player arrives at a landmark. If the player wants to buy a souvenir, he will draw a
Souvenir card and pay to the Banker the amount designated on the card. He will then place the Souvenir card into
To win the game, a player must visit his hotel at
least once. When the player arrives at the hotel listed on his itinerary, the banker will give him a hotel voucher.
The player will place the hotel voucher into his Passport.
A roadblock is an item that can be placed at any
location of the player's choice; it is a strategic play to block the progress of his opponents. No player, including
the one who placed the roadblock, may cross a roadblock from either direction. This forces all players to choose
an alternate route.
One roadblock card is given to each player at the
start of the game. Additional roadblock cards may be drawn from the deck of Chance cards. Players are not required
to use the roadblock right away. Roadblocks are kept by the Banker until needed by a player. When a player chooses
to use a roadblock card he gives it to the Banker.
Roadblocks are an advanced strategic feature, and
their use is optional. If you wish to play without roadblocks it's best to remove the roadblock cards from the
Chance deck before play begins.
Variations in Play
Other variations to the rules may be decided upon
in advance by the players. Here are some ideas:
- Play until all but one player is out of money.
- Set a time limit for the game; whichever player
has the most points wins.
- Determine how many points will be required to win,
then assign points as follows
Each landmark visited = 10 points
Each souvenir purchased = 5 points
Hotel voucher = 20 points
Add 1 point for every pound (currency) in the player's possession
For more advanced players:
- Questions about the city must be chosen when an
Opportunity card is drawn, instead of each player deciding which of the four items to choose.
- Do not allow taxi or bus transportation to be used
anywhere within the city.
- Remove all duplicate Landmark cards from the Landmark
deck. Only one player will be allowed to visit each Landmark.
The idea for the Found Walking: Liverpool game occurred
to Ray Zelenski while he was visiting Liverpool in September 1999. He read about the city and studied maps before
he arrived, but was lost within one hour while walking from his hotel under the cloudy sky. He backtracked, and
began to notice significant landmarks, parks, and hotels. His next walk through the city was much more successful;
he began writing notes on his map and paying close attention to significant buildings and open areas. Each day
he continued his observations and note-taking; in the evenings he would place markers on the map indicating his
landmark sightings and his location according to his notes. The ideas for this game evolved from his experiences.
The Found Walking: Liverpool game was designed to
correspond with real events that happen during travel, although some events were modified somewhat to better fit
the format of a board game. The template for the game board was an actual map of the city. The original design
of the game included chance cards that consisted of challenges or problems faced during travel, bonus cards consisting
of favorable events faced during travel, opportunity cards that consisted of questions that could be answered to
earn money, interaction cards that consisted of actions to be performed with at least one other player, and direction
cards that specified in which direction a player could move during his turn. To simplify the game rules we reduced
the number of cards used in the game; the bonus and chance cards were combined, the opportunity and interaction
cards were combined, and direction cards were eliminated. Eliminating the direction cards also solved another logistical
problem: how to handle the streets that don't run north/south or east/west.
We used an iterative process to design this game.
We attempted to play the game using a preliminary draft of the game board early during the design phase. This helped
the design process immensely because we could more easily visualize what would happen on the board. This process
also helped us uncover logistical problems with the original rules, and helped us brainstorm ideas for overcoming
The major lesson we learned in designing this game
is that it's important to stay focused on the objective of the game; it's quite easy to get carried away with extraneous
details that make the game too complex for the intended audience.
Books & Journals
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flow. In Flow: The psychology of optimal
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- Ellington, H., Addinall, E., & Percival, F.
(1982). How to design a board game. In A
handbook of game design (pp. 47-61). London:
- Keller, J. M., & Suzuki, K. (1988). Use of
the ARCS motivation model in courseware design. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.). Instructional
designs for microcomputer courseware. Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Madsen, K. H. (1994). A guide to metaphorical design.
Communications of the ACM, 37 (12), 57-62.
- Malone, T. W., & Lepper, M. R. (1987). Making
learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In R. E. Snow & M. J. Farr (Eds.). Aptitude, learning and instruction Volume 3: Cognitive and affective process analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: