# Electromagnetic Hearts

## by Ed Nolan

Ed currently works for the newly founded Institute for Educational Outreach. His hobbies include backpacking and MIDI-based musical composition.

Instructional Objective The learner will be able to identify the use and relative size of any frequency on the electromagnetic spectrum.

Learners/Context The learners are high school and college physics students who have had prior experiences with exponents, negative numbers, conceptual physics and the metric system.

This card game is designed as a lab exercise soon after the introduction of particles, radiation, energy and light. This game is played just like a conventional game of Hearts. Because the deck is designed like a standard playing deck, it can be used for many other games such as war and poker. The Hearts version of the game is preferred for advanced students and is described here.

Rationale The known electromagnetic spectrum is described as a continuum of ordinal values divided up into eight distinct categories. Much like standard playing cards, the eight categories serve as the suits and the ordinal values serve as the numbers. As shown later in this document, the electromagnetic continuum has been distributed among 52 cards.

Using this approach, the student is encouraged to conceptualize the electromagnetic spectrum by the relative size of the wavelengths presented. Since it is easier to think of International Broadcast Bands (5.95 - 26.1 MHz) as approximately 50 meters in length rather than 5 million centimeters, associations can be made between the function and the size of the frequencies.

Rules For the purpose of this lesson, the rules for Electromagnetic Hearts are as follows: The game requires four people. The objective of this game is to NOT gain points. The only way there is to gains points is by taking a "trick" that contains the Infinity card.

1. The 52-card deck is shuffled and dealt to all players in standard fashion (13 cards per player). Each player is given time to organize their cards in order of frequency. Once the players are ready, the person with the "Rotating Generator" card goes first. The first card (Rotating Generator in this case) is placed face up in the middle of the players. In clockwise order, everyone else puts in a face-up card of the same suit (the valid suits being Power/Phone, Radio Waves, Microwaves Infrared, Ultra Violet, X-Rays and Gamma Rays). Whoever has the highest frequency of that suit, wins the trick. The winner places the four cards nearby for a later tally. The winner of the trick lays down another card of any suit. Clockwise, everyone else puts in a face-up card of the same suit. The person with the highest suit takes the trick and so on. This process is repeated until all 13 tricks have been played.

2. If a player does not have a card of the suit played, that player may substitute, otherwise known as sluff, any other card. No matter what the value of a sluffed card is, that card can never win a trick.

3. Infinity cards can only be played if one has already been sluffed.

4. Once all cards have been played, each player examines all of their tricks for Infinity cards. Each player gains ten points for each Infinity card taken. There is one exception to this rule. If a player obtains all three Infinity cards, the other three players all gain ten points. This is called Shooting the Moon. This provides any player an opportunity to turn a losing game into a winning game.

Card and Deck Design Each card, except for the Infinity cards, has four types of playing information: The suit, frequency, use and relative wavelength. These fields help the student to identify the value of the card.

The 52 card deck is comprised of eight suits. There are six values for each suit except for visible light which has 7. The remaining three cards are the Infinity cards.

Design Process The topic alone provided a plethora of ideas for games. In an effort to keep the rules and the game simple, the standard 52 card deck appeared to be the obvious choice. As previously mentioned, two or more people can play a simple game of war with this deck (high card wins the trick).

The original card design included the actual wavelength for each frequency measured in centimeters. This additional field appeared to make the cards too noisy and intimidating for the learners.

The frequencies and comparisons are only approximations and have not been verified.

```    Suit      Use                      Freq.    Length in cm    Relative size
Power and     Rotating Generator       1        100,000,000,00  2 Earth's
Phone                                           0               circumference
Microphone               10       50,000,000,000  Earth's
circumference
Audio Frequency          50       10,000,000,000  Asian continent
Transmission lines       10^2     5,000,000,000   Earth's diameter
Electrical Outlet        10^2.5   100,000,000     California's
length
Telephone line           10^3     50,000,000      Rhode Island's
width
International Broadcast  10^4     5,000,000       30 Meters
Marine Navigation        10^4.5   1,000,000       15 Meters
Low VHF                  10^5     500,000         8 Meters
FM Radio                 10^5.5   100,000         4 Meters
High VHF                 10^6     50,000          1 Meter
Microwaves    UHF Broadcast            10^6.5   10,000          30 Inches
Magnetrons               10^7     5,000           28 Inches
Klystrons                10^7.5   1,000           26 Inches
Harmonic Generators      10^8     500             24 Inches
Microwave Oven           10^8.5   100             22 Inches
Masers                   10^9     50              20 Inches
Infrared      Fasers                   10^9.5   10              4 Inches
Welbach Mantles          10^10    5               2 Inches
Far Infrared             10^10.5  1               1 Centimeter
Intermediate Infrared    10^11    0.5             Fruit seed
Low-light vision         10^11.5  0.1             Millimeter
Visible       Red                      10^14.1  0.0007          Protozoa
Light
Orange                   10^14.2  0.0006          Ameoba
Yellow                   10^14.3  0.0005          Golgi Apparatus
Green                    10^14.4  0.0004          Escherichia coil
Blue                     10^14.5  0.0003          Vacuole
Indigo                   10^14.6  0.0002          Prokaryotic cell
Violet                   10^14.7  0.0001          Neurotransmitter
Ultra Violet  Kelvin Temp 10k          10^16    0.00005         Mitochondrion
Kelvin Temp 20k          10^16.2  0.00001         Polio Virus
5
Kelvin Temp 30k          10^16.5  0.000005        Tobacco mosaic
virus
Kelvin Temp 40k          10^17    0.000001        Adenovirus virus
Kelvin Temp 50k          10^17.2  0.0000005       Eubacterial
5                        flagellum
Kelvin Temp 60k          10^17.5  0.0000001       Atom
Superficial Therapy
Diagnostics              5
therapy
GRE: Light Materials     10^19    0.000000001     Half-Angstrom
GRE: General             10^19.2  0.0000000005    Quarter-Angstrom
5
GRE: Welds and Heavy     10^19.5  0.0000000001    100th Angstrom
Casting
Gamma Rays    Linear Accelerators      10^20    0.00000000005   Milli-Angstrom
Betatrons                10^22.5  0.00000000001   Oxygen nuclei
Synchrotrons             10^23    0.000000000001  Helium nuclei
Cyclotrons               10^23.5  0.000000000000  Electron
1
Secondary Cosmic Rays    10^24    0.000000000000  Sub-atomic
01              particles
Tertiary Cosmic Rays     10^24    0.000000000000  Quark
001
Unknown       Unknown                  10^?     Infinity        Infinity
Unknown                  10^?     Infinity        Infinity
Unknown                  10^?     Infinity        Infinity

```