Active Learning on the Web (K-12 Version)
Bernie Dodge, Department of Educational Technology
San Diego State University
A Presentation to the Faculty of La Jolla Country Day School, August 20, 1996
Active learning isn't a new idea. It goes back at least as far as Socrates and was a major emphasis among progressive educators like John Dewey. And yet, if you peer into many classrooms, we seem to have forgotten that learning is naturally an active process. It involves putting our students in situations which compel them to read, speak, listen, think deeply, and write. While well delivered lectures are valuable and are not uncommon, sometimes the thinking required while attending a lecture is low level comprehension that goes from the ear to the writing hand and leaves the mind untouched. Active learning puts the responsibility of organizing what is to be learned in the hands of the learners themselves, and ideally lends itself to a more diverse range of learning styles.
Inputs, Transformations and Outputs
There are at least two reasons that the World Wide Web is an exciting development for educators:
- Using the Web forces active learning
- Using the Web breaks down the walls that separate schools from everything else.
When first faced with the prospect of developing learning environments on the web, it's easy to be overwhelmed by the possibilities. One way to reduce the complexity of the task is to chunk things out into these three domains.
For a year and a half now I've been experimenting with a variety of ways of teaching with the Web. One format that is both simple to implement and highly effective is something I named a webquest. While the definition of a webquest is still a bit slippery, it is at its heart a technique for engaging students in active learning which uses the web and other resources as they strive to understand a topic. While I've tried many variations on this strategy, the most fully developed one is the Archaeotype Webquest. The goal of this exercise was to convey the underlying design philosophy of a particular innovative software program called Archaeotype. For various reasons I was unable to demonstrate the program itself. Instead I had my students interview the designers of the program as well as a teacher and some students who had used it. They also examined concept papers written by the program's designers and studied an evaluation report on the topic. At the end, they were required to pull together the answers to a range of questions about Archaeotype and to recommend (or not recommend) its adoption at their school. The results were that in the span of less than three hours the students were fully involved in gathering data, making sense of it, communicating what they learned to each other, and collaborating on a final document for which they were provided a template. The results of their deliberations were posted on the Web within a few minutes of the end of class, and were thus available for further analysis and discussion.
Some More Examples
Others have found webquests to be useful and fairly easy to create. For example:
Ingredients for Mindful Teaching
There are many variations on the webquest notion, and many other formats for web teaching that are not webquests at all. The field is too new for us to have a cookbook of lessons already in place. The essential ingredients for good lessons, though, are becoming clearer, and what follows is a beginning list.
|If you want your students to learn...||then include these things in your lesson...||as in these examples.|
|Some of the vocabulary and basic concepts within a topic
||An interesting task that requires close reading of some on-line resources.
||Egyptian Scavenger Hunt
|To observe physical things closely and develop the ability to distinguish details and characteristics
||Exercises which present many different objects of study and require several kinds of processing
||Eyes on Art
|To analyze the similarities and differences between two objects, people, or events.
||Research opportunities in which aspects of two entities are compared and contrasted.
||Comparing San Diego and Biarritz
|To look at a topic from multiple perspectives, synthesize them, and modify their views in response to feedback
||Separate groups gathering data from different vantage points and working in jigsaw fashion to agree on a report which is published on the Web.
||Expedition to Encanto
The use of the internet as a conduit for person to person voice communications is growing, and this has useful implications for creating an active learning environment. With a bit of preparation and cajoling, you can line up colleagues who will be willing to be interviewed by your students as they quest for understanding. PGPfone is a free program which allows secure telephone conversations on the web. Internet Phone is a commercial program that provides point to point voice communication as well.
To go beyond mere conversation, a wave of groupware programs is about to descend upon us.
NetMeeting is a forthcoming program from Microsoft that makes it possible for people seated at different computers to share the editing of a document while conversing about it. Think about ways in which you can pair your students with willing clients and editors who are interested in what they create.
QuickTime Video and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) are part of the newest version of Netscape. It's likely that more and more web publishers will make use of this format to communicate their messages. The ability to explore physical spaces will literally bring a new dimension to our classrooms.
|Apple's Project X promises to turn cyberspace into a three-dimensional realm that we can explore visually. With not too much effort, one can turn a group of related files into a knowledge space and navigate it by mousing your way toward your goal. It's possible that representing information this way will provide learners with new insights about how a domain hangs together, and that the tactile and spatial nature of Project X will appeal to a more diverse set of students.
To sum it up, you don't need to take a sabbatical to gear up for active learning on the Web. It just requires a fresh look at what you teach with an eye towards using the resources that are already out there. As time goes on, the number and quality of resources on the web will continue to rise (though there may be advertisements flashing at us from one corner of the screen).
References and Resources
Active Learning in General
Bombardi, L. Active learning strategies for humanities curricula.
Bonwell, C. C., & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Document No. ED 340 272.
Cohen, E. B., & Boyd, E. C. Teaching techniques the work: College teaching of information systems.
Seeler, D. C., Turnwald, G. H., & Bull, K. S. From teaching to learning: Part III. Lectures and approaches to active learning.
Weimer, M. (1996). Active Learning: A bibliography of 'Best' and 'Current' Resources.
Active Learning on the Web
Browning, P., & Williams, J. The geology@bristol experience.
Dodge, B. J. Some thoughts about webquests. The Distance Educator, 1(3), 12-15.
Johannesson, P. & Boman, M. (1996). Hypermedia and communication for active learning.
Bonn, M., Gyuk, D., & Westmoreland, D. QTVR: A practical guide.